Laimonas Abarius. Vytautas region.

Vytautas region as a partizans unit acted in Aukštaitija — Švenčionys, Utena, Zarasai districts in 1945-1952. It consisted of Tigras, Šarūnas, Lokys regiments. Partizans of Vytautas region took part in many struggles with NKVD armed forces. In fact, the region was formed from partizans units which acted in Labanoras, Ažvinčiai, Antazavė forests in summer of 1945. J.Kimštas (later — V.Mikulėnas (October, 1945 - December, 1945), P.Zinkevičius (December, 1945 - October, 1946), V.Kaulinis (January, 1947 — March, 1949), B.Kalytis (March, 1949 - December 20,1951) were elected leaders of Vytautas region. Newspaper of the region was called "Aukštaičių kova" (Aukštaičiai Fight, editors P.lvonis, B.Kazickas, B.Krivickas). Regiments also had their own smaller newspapers. Vytautas region had lost many partizans in 1945 leaders of Lokys regiment M.Kazanas, A.Streikus, A.Keberža and leader of the whole region V.Mikulėnas were killed, Šarūnas regiment was totally destroyed (about 360 partizans were killed). About 900 partizans still fighted in Vytautas region in 1947. Some units belonged to the region headquarters just formally, so partizans units of Rokiškis, Utena districts were transferred to the new Algimantas region.

Bunkers of the headquarters in Vosiliškiai and Baltamiškis villages were betrayed on April 5-12. Some officers of the headquarters were killed in struggles, among them - editor of the newspaper "Aukštaičių kova" B.Kazickas, who shot himself in the bunker surrounded by enemies. On March 19,1951, another bunker of the headquarters was betrayed in Labanoras forest. One of the officers J.Bulka was arrested and recruited. Together with MGB shockers, he destroyed partizans one by one leader of Lokys regiment B.Vaičėnas was killed on April 11,1951, leader of the whole region B.Kalytis was arrested on December 20,1951. B.Kalytis was also recruited by MGB. He betrayed chief of the region headquarters J.Kemiaklis (killed on December 22,1951), member of the headquarters, leader of Tigras regiment V. Želidonis (killed on March 27,1952), leader of the region J.Kimštas (arrested on August 16,1952) and others. There were just about 20 partizans in

Vytautas region in 1953. In fact, the region was destroyed.

Artūras Vaitekaitis. Vision of the state in documents and press of resistance (1940-1952).

Lithuanian nation was not prepared to the 1st soviet occupation, but society's resistance had begun already on June 15. Underground resistance groups were organized all over Lithuania in September, the same year. Their activities were as follows: distribution of underground press and proclamations, also the petty sabotage. Secret meeting of those groups took place in Vilnius on October 9, 1940. Lithuanian Activists Front (Lietuvių Aktyvistų Frontas, LAF) was established with the purpose to unite resistance members of various political views and social status. LAF did believe that Lithuania will have its place in Mew Europe vision declared by Germany and that policy of nationality and private property will protect it from colonization.

After the beginning of Germany - USSR war, LAF had announced that the Provisional Government of Lithuania was established on June 23. During its short existence period, Provisional Government of Lithuania tried to return back the laws of independent state and issued new legal acts to eliminate chaos brought by USSR and to abrogate nationalization laws.

First fighting organization which had begun active and wide anti-German propaganda against the absurd of Nazi "Mew Europe" was Lithuanian Freedom Fighters Union (Lietuvos Laisvės Kovotojų Sąjunga, LLKS). Its hopes of restoration of Lithuanian independence were based on Atlantic Charter principles and possible military conflict between Anglo-Saxons and USSR. LLKS believed that Lithuanian nation was democratic virtually and could not be divided from the state to be sure various political parties would not care about their interests more than the wealth of the whole nation and the power could continue and make main reforms. LLKS was one of most radical anti-Mazi resistance organizations, it organized secret press, maintained relations with national movements of other countries. It continued this activity after the beginning of the 2nd soviet occupation too till LLKS joined General Democratic Resistance Movement (Bendras Demokratinis Pasipriešinimo Sąjūdis, BDPS) together with LLA in 1946. Lithuanian Freedom Army (Lietuvos Laisvės Armija, LLA) was the military organization established in 1942 to fight for independence of Lithuania.

Underground organizations established for one general purpose had to look for the ways of uniting and re-building of the state. On November 25, 1943, the main resistance centre and the highest institution to protect nation's rights, to talk on nation's behalf home and abroad, was organized. Chief Committee of Lithuania' Liberation (Vyriausiasis Lietuvos Išlaisvinimo Komitetas, VLIK) was organized of Chief Lithuanian Committee (nationalists, socialdemocrats, members of the national party) and Council of the Nation (Christian political organizations). When the front came near to Lithuania, VLIK retreated West together with German army.

In summer of 1944, Lithuanian nation had chosen partizan war against soviet occupants. Fights of this period (1944-1952) were much more active than 1st anti-soviet and anti-Nazi resistance. Partizan movement reached for free and democratic state led by united government without communist and post-communist political forces. Attention was also paid to land, industry, education reforms.

In February, 1949, meeting of Lithuanian partizans leaders was held and the declaration and statute of Lithuanian Freedom Fight Movement (Lietuvos Laisvės Kovų Sąjūdis, LLKS) were prepared. According to the statute, "purpose of the Movement was to restore free, independent, democratic Republic of Lithuania".

Organized partizan war had come to the end in 1952-1953. The nation did not stop to resist, but tactics became different - spiritual resistance took place of armed fight.

Dalius Stancikas. NKVD methods of fight against the church in 1940-1941.

Communists always tried to destroy fundamental principles of civilization and propagandize atheism. Instead of spiritual idealism they offered a new religion — material or economical "idealism". But Bolsheviks who aimed to destroy Russian orthodox Church could see that it was possible to scare people by open violence and terror, but it was difficult to make them accept their new religion. So they had chosen other means — blackmail, Discrediting, instigation etc.

Lithuania was not handy to Bolshevization not only because it was deeply Christian, conservative state, but also because Russian Bolsheviks did not know this land and its traditions well. That was why the help of local collaborationists was very significant and acceptable to Kremlin.

Occupation of Lithuania by Soviet Onion had begun on June 15,1940, and three-four days later, Lithuanian collaborationists were appointed to manage main repression structures in Lithuania. A.Snieckus became the director of security department of Ministry of internal affairs, and A.Gudaitis-Guzevicius was appointed the deputy of minister of internal affairs of LSSR.

A.Gudaitis-Guzevicius had become commissar of internal affairs on August 25,1940. He paid much attention to clergy and wrote many reports to Kremlin with various offers how to stop their activity. He was especially angry about Lithuanian patriotism implanted among people together with the faith. In his reports, he offered to begin blackmail against catholic leaders in press, to bring an action against some priests, to destroy monastic organizations, to arrest Rev.Brizgys (dep. bishop of Kaunas diocese) and other active clergymen.

Main offers how to disunite and destroy Catholic Church of Lithuania were described by USSR NKVD in January, 1941. NKVD aimed to: nationalize churches and all their property, destroy abbeys and to register all the monks and nuns with their property, close seminaries. Besides, NKVD planned to disunite the Church by dividing it into two groups: moderate stream led by metropolitan J.Skvireckis, and anti-soviet stream led by bishop V.Brizgys. NKVD also tried to discredit V.Brizgys in press, to create secret network of informators among the priests, believers, students of university and seminary, even among pupils of secondary schools.

Therefore tactics and means of communists fight against the Church are shown clearly in this document These offers were realized not only then, but also during 50 years of occupation too. On the other hand, behaviour of clergy during first months of occupation is described too. Alas, it was clear that at the very beginning of occupation NKVD had its agents among the priests in Lithuania. The main purpose of NKVD was to break down clergy and believers spiritually. Those who did not surrender were doomed to physical means: they were imprisoned at the prisoners' camps or destroyed.

Dalius Stancikas. Incorrigible three cases of the reverend Alfonsas Svarinskas.

The Reverend Alfonsas Svarinskas was recognized one of the most reactionary and dangerous for soviet system priests by communists. Even more — KGB gave him the pseudonym Incorrigible (Neispravimyj in Russian) in its cases. Soviet courts called him "especially dangerous recidivist". The Rev. A.Svarinskas was convicted five times, imprisoned in prisoners' camps three times (by the way, he was consecrated in the camp too) and spent more than years there.

First criminal case No. 1998 of Alfonsas Svarinskas was brought on January 3,1947, and completed on February 27,1947. He was suspected in participation in LLA (Lithuanian Freedom Army), publication and distribution of anti-soviet literature, relations with partizans of Ukmergė region.

Order to arrest A.Svarinskas was signed on January 3,1947. The Reverd Alfonsas Svarinskas: 'There was just one way of torture — physical violence, and it was used for everyone. 1 was tortured much too, especially by KGB colonel -lieutenant Martavidus- all the prison's walls were sprinkled with my blood.

Prisoners of Kaunas KGB and Lukiškės prisons were interesting and nice people, most of them intelligentsia: officers, lawyers, priests. They knew what they were suffering for and were sorry not about their imprisonment, but about so much they could do if they were free".

A.Svarinskas was sentenced on March 13 and he came out of prisoners' camp just on March 20,1956, — nine years later.

The second criminal case No. 19809 of the Rev. Alfonsas Svarinskas was brought on April 9,1958, and completed on July 31,1958. A.Svarinskas was accused with distribution of anti-soviet literature and with anti-soviet sermons.

The Rev. A.Svarinskas: "In 1945 or 1946, the Pope Pius XII applied to governments of all the world not to use physical means and tortures during investigations. It was quiet strange that this appeal had influenced even KGB. When I was arrested second time, investigators used psychological pressure. But we had our "weapons" against them: we used to sing "Marija, Marija" and hymn of Lithuania every evening, and the power was so scared!

Just imagine hymn of Lithuania sounds in KGB building in 1958?'.

A.Svarinskas was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment on July 26, 1958, and he spent those years in Mordovia camp.

On March 19,1972, the "Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania" was established, and on November 13,1978, the Committee to Defend the Believers' Rights was founded. The Rev. A.Svarinskas was one of the founders and he took an active participation in its work. The third action against Rev. Alfonsas Svarinskas was brought on January 25,1983. The criminal case No. 09-2-003-83 of 17 volumes was completed on May 7,1983. Investigator Egidijus Bičkauskas (vice-chairman of Seimas from December, 1992) was appointment the leader of investigation group. Rev. A.Svarinskas was accused with anti-soviet agitation and propaganda and sentenced to 7 years of imprisonment and 3 years of deportation.

Dalius Stancikas. KGB efforts in 1989. There is the work report of 1989 of former LSSR KGB chairman among other KGB documents.

KGB general mayor E.Eismuntas describes political situation of Lithuania at the first part of the report He recognizes it is very complicated. EEismuntas is not satisfied not only with the events in Lithuania, but with position and activities of LKP (Lithuania Communist Party) leaders too. Second and third parts of the report are most interesting, because work of KGB reconnaissance departments against restoration of Lithuanian state is described here. For example, 170 agents left West with reconnaissance tasks during 1989, there were also foreign agents at Europarlament, Lithuanian organizations abroad etc. Agent with the pseudonym "Kliuger" is mentioned in this report too ("Laisvės Kovų Archyvas" had published collection of documents about his activity in 1995). KGB had sent almost 2000 pcs of various propaganda material to USA and another states in 1989. May be that was the way to prove that Lithuanians are executors of Jewish nation, because exactly at that moment libel about Lithuania grew stronger in foreign press and among politicians.

Main activity of counter-espionage department was directed against patriotic organizations and parties by infiltrating KGB agents there and disuniting said organizations. It is clear from the report that much attention was paid not to the whole Sąjūdis, but just to its radical part which strived to restore independence. To destroy this idea, discrediting data (sometimes false) was announced in press or other mass media. E.Eismuntas pointed out that there was also other part of discrediting information left for the future to influence political life of Lithuania by further blackmail. Secret files of KGB agents were not obliterated, but brought to Moscow for the same purpose. It appears now that the words of E.Eismuntas: "I will blow up new Supreme Council from inside" were true. Many scandal stories announced at KGB initiative provoked crisis in Supreme Council which caused untimely elections to Seimas in 1992.

KGB also paid much attention to the Church and Workers' union. Power of "Solidarnosc" in Poland was known to KGB, and it was afraid of Workers' union, so it tried to suppress this movement at the very beginning through its agents (32 agents infiltrated to the Union during one year).

E.Eismuntas had mentioned even few times in his report that LKP had lost control over mass media, but he said almost nothing about KGB influence on it. In fact, KGB plans to separate Sąjūdis press from Sąjūdis were realized exactly in 1989.

At the end of the document, E.Eismuntas pointed out that the Supreme Council could declare Lithuania's independence after the elections of February, 1990. Nevertheless, general Eismuntas made a decision that KGB of Lithuania would continue its activity in any extreme conditions.

Beginning of the second soviet occupation: staff policy in 1944-1945. Before Lithuania was occupied second time, much attention was paid by Kremlin to preparing of new staff. But as it is clear from the profile of courses organized, first of all party and soviet "specialists" were trained instead of economy and culture workers. Courses of party committees instructors, secretaries, chairmans of executive committees, komsomol secretaries and instructors, workers of justice and finance spheres were organized all over Soviet Union. Listeners of these courses were taught of the following subjects: history of VKP(b), party building, soviet building, history of USSR and LSSR, economical and political geography, work of komsomol, Stalin's constitution.

For restoration of soviet regime, people’s commissariats and other re-pression structures were re-established Party and soviet operative groups were organized When Red army entered Vilnius, A.Sniečkus, M.Gedvilas and J.Paleckis arrived there, and 2365 functioneers followed them soon. NKVD-NKGB operative workers, regional operative groups helped to restore party, komsomol and soviet institutions. LKP(b) central committee many times invited people from USSR to work as executives of NKVD-NKGB, party, soviet and other managing institutions. Most of them were not Lithuanians, though sometimes they called themselves so. For example, 304 "Lithuanian" executives from USSR were appointed by LKP(b) at the beginning of 1945. 38 of them knew Lithuanian language well, 43 - satisfactory, and others did not know it at all. They arrived with their families and acquaintances, looking for the easier life, and they needed everything: flats, furniture, agriculture implements, clothing, food, money, animals, obligations etc.

Staff departments were established in Lithuania during years of 1st soviet occupation. These departments led by party members, most of them -Jewish or Russian, collected and checked information about every worker to be hired. Lists of unreliable people were made in all enterprises, institutions and organizations and sanctions against them were taken. Such people were accused with relations with partizans, Germans or clergy, antisoviet or anti-communist political views and so on. Most popular and easy punishment was discharge, most severe — arrest with all the consequences. For example, 727 people were discharged and 126 arrested in government institutions in 1945. Workers of industry, health, justice, education institutions did not avoid repressions too. Many schools could not work because of lack of teachers. According to the data of LKP(b) committees of 4 towns and 26 regions, 7845 people were discharged and 661 arrested in Lithuania in 1945. Russification of Lithuanian institutions and organizations grew stronger. At LKP(b) CK XI plenum first secretary of LKP(b) A.Snieckus recognized that there were no chances to restore soviet power in Lithuania without help of USSR, but he had never ever mentioned what damage for Lithuanian nation was done by stalinizm regime, Bolshevik party, its army, courts, NKVD and NKGB.

Translated by Inga Bogomolovaitè.